The number of the population in the present geographic territory of Lithuania is constantly fluctuating. Approximately 4.5 million people might live in Lithuania in the middle of the 17th century. According to the survived data of population census of 1790 there were just 3.6 million people living in the country at that time. The number of the population decreased again in the end of the 19th century – just 2.5 million people lived in the territory of present-day Lithuania. The number of population had decreased because of wars, plaque, genocide, deportations and emigrations. For instance, fierce starvation and plaque hit Lithuania in 1708-1711, reducing the number of the inhabitants of Samogitia by almost half. The composition of Lithuanian population is rather monoethnic, i.e. the majority of the country population consisted of Lithuanians during all historical periods however there have never lived so many Lithuanians in the State of Lithuania as at present. According to the data of the Department of Statistics there lived 75.5 % of Lithuanians, 10.5-11 % of Jews, 5-7 % of Germans, 5.6 % of Poles, approximately 1.5 % of Latvians and 0.5 % of Byelorussians in the middle of the 19th century in the geographical territory of present-day Lithuania. In 1970 there were 79.3 % of Lithuanians, 0.8 % of Jews, 7.7 % of Poles, and 8.6 % of Russians. Decrease in the number of Lithuanian population during the last years was determined by the decrease of birth-rate and emigration. There were several waves of emigration in the country history of the 20th century: a part of population used to emigrate from the country to America and Australia looking for bigger salary and luck, a part of population left the home country because of wars and Russian occupation in 1940. According to non-official data of various sources (embassies and Lithuanian communities abroad) more than 300-500 thousand people emigrated from the country after restoration of independence.